A 22-month-old Adelaide girl has died in hospital from meningococcal disease.

The girl, who passed away on Saturday, was the first meningococcal fatality in South Australia this year, health officials said on Monday.

She is the first person to die from the disease this year and the 10th confirmed case of invasive meningococcal reported in the state for 2010, compared with eight cases at the same time last year.

SA Health chief medical officer Paddy Phillips said meningococcal was an extremely serious illness with a 10 to 15 per cent mortality rate.

Professor Phillips said that the SA Health's officers have identified 30 contacts and of these, 22 family members and health care workers have been directed to receive medical assessment and clearance antibiotics.

The girl's death was also referred to the state coroner.

A total of 22 cases and two deaths were reported in 2009.