Neo-Nazism forms a particularly dark and lurid part of the political landscapes of virtually all European countries and North America, sixty-five years after the collapse of the Third Reich of Germany.
However, neo-Nazi movements have cropped up in some unlikely places.
Consider Mongolia, the vast and remote nation in northern Asia.
“Dayar Mongol” is a far-right nationalist movement that focuses much of its wrath on the giant neighbor to the south, China.
Ironically, while members of Dayar Mongol sport swastikas and march like storm-troopers, Mongolia has been under Communist domination since the end of World War II. First, the Soviet Union (whom Mongolia helped to defeat Adolf Hitler); and now China, which has provided millions of dollars in military aid.
However, many Mongolians are resentful and suspicious of China’s intervention in their country. Dayar Mongol has exploited fears that the Chinese seek to destroy traditional Mongolian culture and also dilute what they consider the “pure” Mongolian race. As such, Dayar Mongol warns Mongolian women against sleeping with Chinese men.
There are also growing fears that the Chinese want to develop Mongolia’s coal and energy reserves, thereby disrupt the ancient pastoral lifestyle the country is widely known for.
Dayar Mongol’s leader, Erdenebileg Zenemyadar, openly exhibits Nazi swastika on his website and in public demonstrations; although he personally always wears the traditional dress of Mongolian’s nomadic herdsmen.
Tough young members of Dayar Mongol have been accused by human rights activists of repeatedly attacking foreigners and the women consorting with them.
In one notorious case that was broadcast on the web, Dayar Mongol associates shaved the head of a Mongolian woman to shame her for being with a Chinese man.
Zenemyadar defended the act, although he claims he does not condone violence.
I think this is right, he told western media.
If you ask the Mongolian people what they think about it, the majority of people would support that act. Young people see foreigners breaking the law and they're not happy. So they're threatening them, sometimes robbing them. It's wrong, but it's happening a lot. Sometimes they are our members but the majority are not. Maybe they're our supporters, but we don't know them.
Another neo-Nazi group, Tsagaan Khas ('White Swastika') openly admires Adolf Hitler.
Ironically, during World War II, when German soldiers captured Russian forces, they summarily executed any that looked Mongolian.
Still, Hitler’s adherence to racial purity has great resonance among some in Mongolia who feel threatened by the encroaching outside world.
One Mongolian neo-Nazi told western media: We have to make sure that as a nation our blood is pure. That's about our independence. If we start mixing with Chinese, they will slowly swallow us up. Mongolian society is not very rich. Foreigners come with a lot of money and might start taking our women.
Indeed, the fact that Mongolia has a small population of just 3-million versus China’s huge billion-plus population causes much anxiety.
If our blood mixes with foreigners', we'll be destroyed immediately, one Mongol Nazi told western press.
One of Dayar Mongol’s young members, a man named Soronzon Jamsran, wearing combat trousers, a black t-shirt and a swastika around his neck, told BBC: Germany's nationalists tried to cleanse their nation, so for me [the swastika] stands for keeping our nation pure. It's not like I support Germany or I'm a Nazi. It's just nationalism.
As in 1920s Germany, economic fears are primarily driving far-right activities in Mongolia, particularly violence against foreigners and homosexuals.
One gay Mongolian told BBC: I'm in constant fear, and unless we do something it's just going to get worse and worse.
Nazi memorabilia and graffiti are quite common in the capital city of Ulan Bator.
But a larger inspiration for these “Nazis” are the glories of Mongolia’s ancient culture and warrior tradition, which they celebrate and revere. After all, the largest empire the world has ever known – the Mongol Empire – was founded by the greatest of all Mongolians, Genghiz Khan.
Still, Dayar Mongol has failed to win much support among ordinary Mongolians. In the 2008 parliamentary elections, the party’s candidates gained only 1 percent or less of the vote.
In recent days, unrest has been reported in the semi-autonomous Inner Mongolia province of China, which borders Mongolia itself. Due to migration from China-proper, Mongolians are now a minority in the province.
The accidental killing of a Mongol shepherd who was blocking Chinese coal trucks from moving had sparked days of anti-government protests – quite an unusual event in Communist China.
Far-right forces in Mongolia will likely exploit this tragedy to advance their own agenda.