The Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. on Friday voted to charge U.S. banks a one-time fee of 5 cents per every $100 of assets to rebuild its insurance fund depleted by compensating nationwide bank failures.

The FDIC voted 4-1 today to impose a fee of 5 cents per $100 of assets, excluding Tier 1 capital.

Originally, the assessment was 20 cents per every $100 of domestic deposits but then revised after it was met with great opposition.

According to FDIC estimates, the charge will raise $5.6 billion, lifting the fund from its lowest level since early 1994.

“We have tried to strike the right balance between keeping the assessment low enough so that we do not unduly burden anyone in any capacity,” FDIC Chairman Sheila Bair said at a meeting in Washington. “We have struck upon a rule that is equitable.”

Customers approach the FDIC for payment when banks fail, but this year so far has the insurer has been drained by more than $10 billion as regulators shut 34 lenders.

Florida’s BankUnited Financial Corp. was shut yesterday and Silverton Bank of Atlanta on May 1. The two banks combined cost $6.2 billion, bringing the tally of failed banks close to a 15-year high.