People with certain risk factors are more likely than others to develop skin cancer. Risk factors vary for different types of skin cancer, but some general risk factors are having:
- A lighter natural skin color.
- Family history of skin cancer.
- A personal history of skin cancer.
- Exposure to the sun through work and play.
- A history of sunburns early in life.
- Skin that burns, freckles, reddens easily, or becomes painful in the sun.
- Blue or green eyes.
- Blond or red hair.
- Certain types and a large number of moles.
Tanning and Burning
When ultraviolet (UV) rays reach the skin's inner layer, the skin makes more melanin. Melanin is the pigment that colors the skin. It moves toward the outer layers of the skin and becomes visible as a tan.
A tan does not indicate good health. Some doctors consider a tan a response to injury, because it appears after the sun's UV rays have killed some skin cells and damaged others.
People burn or tan depending on their skin type, the time of year, and the amount of time they have spent in the sun. The six types of skin, based on how likely it is to tan or burn, are-
- I: Always burns, never tans, sensitive to sun exposure.
- II: Burns easily, tans minimally.
- III: Burns moderately, tans gradually to light brown.
- IV: Burns minimally, always tans well to moderately brown.
- V: Rarely burns, tans profusely to dark.
- VI: Never burns, deeply pigmented, least sensitive.
Although everyone's skin can be damaged by too much sunlight, people with skin types I and II are at the highest risk.