The United States and Canada form the largest integrated energy market in the world. Energy trade between these countries exceeded $100 billion dollars (U.S.) in 2011. Together, they establish a continental market for energy across many types of fuels and products—petroleum products, natural gas, electricity, hydropower, coal and others. Currently, the bulk of energy by both trade dollars and physical volumes moves from Canada to the United States, although for some energy commodities the reverse is true.

Tight integration of energy markets across the U.S.-Canada border is apparent in many ways:


Sources: U.S. Energy Information Administration, based on Statistics Canada

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