The last U.S. soldiers left Iraqi soil early on Sunday, signaling the conclusion of an almost nine-year-long military intervention.

Begun in 2003, the most recent Iraq War resulted in the deaths of nearly 4,500 Americans and tens of thousands of Iraqis. In financial terms, one U.S. Congressional Budget Office estimate indicates it either has or will cost taxpayers about $1.9 trillion.

The final convoy of troops left Camp Adder, near Nasiriyah, most in mine-resistant ambush-protected (MRAP) vehicles.

Check out this slideshow marking the departure of U.S. armed forces: