Hosni MubarakDeposed Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak is seen here speaking during a news conference after talks with German Chancellor Angela Merkel (who is not pictured) at the Chancellery in Berlin on March 4, 2010. Mubarak has been seen reclining in a cage for the most part since he stepped down. Speculation about his rapidly declining health has been unconfirmed, as Mubarak reportedly refuses to speak to anyone outside his circle of family members and close aides. After being put on trial, Mubarak in June 2012 was found guilty of failing to stop the killings of demonstrators by Egypt's security forces and sentenced to life in prison. This month, however, an appeals court overturned the sentence and ordered a retrial.
Suzanne MubarakSuzanne Mubarak, Egypt's former first lady, smiles as she arrives for the Stop Human Trafficking Now forum in Luxor on Dec. 11, 2010. Known mostly for her work with women and children, Mubarak quickly disappeared from the public eye when the country's revolution began Jan. 25 of the following year. She was hospitalized in May 2011 for “severe chest pains,” a day after she was detained on corruption charges. Mubarak now dwells at the family villa outside Cairo and visits her husband in jail, according to a 2012 profile of her by the Daily Beast. She is the only member of Hosni Mubarak's immediate family who is not either on trial or in jail.
Gamal MubarakGamal "Jimmy" Mubarak, younger son of deposed Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, attends a session at the World Economic Forum on the Middle East in Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt, on May 21, 2006. Widely considered Hosni Mubarak’s heir apparent, Gamal Mubarak was often in the Egyptian press. During the revolution, it was rumored that the president clung to power as long as he did simply because the son kept the father sheltered from the reality of the protests, saying they were carried out by only a few people who would go away. After Hosni Mubarak stepped down, Gamal Mubarak was accused of corruption and arrested in April 2011.
Alaa MubarakAlaa "Alan" Mubarak, elder son of deposed Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, is pictured here with his wife Heddy at a Coptic Christmas Eve Mass on Jan. 6, 2011, just days before the revolution began. Unlike his younger brother Gamal, Alaa kept a relatively low profile as a businessman uninvolved in politics. He was imprisoned in April 2011 on charges of abuse of power, corruption, and causing fatalities during the riots. He remains in jail, where he reportedly speaks to few people other than his brother.
Mohamed ElBaradeiMohamed ElBaradei, a leading Egyptian reform campaigner, talks to journalists before traveling to Cairo from Vienna at the Austrian city's airport on Jan. 27, 2011. ElBaradei was a prominent opposition figure during the revolution. He was expected to run for the Egyptian presidency last year, but he announced in January 2012 that he would not do so. In April 2012, ElBaradei formed the Egyptian Constitution Party, too late for him to run for office. However, he and his party became prominent again during the demonstrations against the country's constitutional referendum late last year.
Wael GhonimWael Ghonim, an Egyptian Internet activist, arrives to be honored at the 2011 Time 100 Gala ceremony in New York on April 26, 2011. The former Google Inc. executive gained notoriety after his arrest by Egyptian police and incarceration for 11 days, during which time he said he was kept blindfolded. He was subsequently named one of Time magazine’s 100 most influential people of 2011, and he announced via Twitter that he decided to “take a long-term sabbatical from Google & start a technology focused [nongovernmental organization] to fight poverty & foster education in Egypt.” In January 2012, he published a memoir of the 2011 revolution, titled “Revolution 2.0: The Power of the People is Greater than the People in Power.”
Where were you on Jan. 25 two years ago? If you’re Egyptian, you or somebody you know was probably among the many thousands who descended on Cairo's Tahrir Square to begin what became one of the most monumental political overthrows in the world.
The Egyptians were second in a line of Middle Eastern-North African peoples to attempt to sieze power for themselves during the so-called Arab Spring.
The Egyptian Revolution of 2011 resolved itself relatively quickly, but not exactly bloodlessly.
President Hosni Mubarak, the dictator in the Land of Pharoahs, had been in power almost 30 years when about 2 million of his constituents started screaming for him to step down. During the two weeks of protests in Tahrir Square and elsewhere around Egypt, roughly 850 people were killed, 6,500 were wounded, and 12,000 were arrested.
(Another 10 died and hundreds more were injured in the protests that re-rocked the country last November in response to a power grab by Mubarak's successor, President Mohammed Morsi.)
The situation is still far from perfect. The Morsi-allied Muslim Brotherhood appears invincible, and existing opposition parties have neither enough organization nor loud enough voices to effectively speak up.
Experts say mass protests are likely to remain a staple of the Egyptian political process for some time: The fragmented state of the opposition was exacerbated last November when it failed to form a truly effective coalition against the Islamist-dominated Egyptian Assembly, led by the Muslim Brotherhood's political arm. Until the opposition is able to coalesce around an articulated message, street demonstrations will probably remain the strategy of choice.
In addition, Egypt’s economy is still hurting from the protests. The country's foreign reserves could be depleted in two to three months without replenishment, and the Egyptian pound is at its lowest point ever against the U.S. dollar. The nation's economy's main tentpole, tourism, has yet to recover, and Egypt is now trying to pull in loans from any willing lenders. So far, these have included the International Monetary Fund, the European Union, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey.
Morsi and the Muslim Brotherhood did score major points on the world stage at the end of November when they successfully brokered a cease-fire between Hamas in the Gaza Strip and the Israeli government after eight days of missiles being traded between the two combatants. Morsi won accolades from United Nations diplomats and U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton for “assuming the responsibility and leadership that has long made this country [Egypt] a cornerstone of regional stability and peace.”
In many ways, a new, democratic Egypt is still being born. Meanwhile, here’s a look at where the old regime's leaders, and their detractors, stand today.