Following are the negotiating positions of major nations before a 190-nation U.N. conference in Copenhagen on December 7-18 which will try to work out a new pact to combat climate change.
1) CHINA (annual emissions of greenhouse gases: 6.8 billion tonnes, 5.5 tonnes per capita)
* Emissions - China said it will cut its carbon intensity -- the amount of carbon dioxide emitted for each unit of GDP -- by 40 to 45 percent by 2020, compared with 2005 levels. The domestic voluntary target will still allow emissions to rise.
* Demands - China said developed nations' targets to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions are still too low. It expects cuts of at least 40 percent from 1990 levels by 2020 and wants a promise of far more aid and green technology.
2) UNITED STATES (6.4 billion tonnes, 21.0 tonnes per capita)
* Emissions - The U.S. aims to cut emissions by 3 percent below 1990 levels by 2020, a 17 percent cut from 2005. President Barack Obama will visit Copenhagen on December 9, before other leaders. The U.S. also said it would extend cuts to 30 percent below 2005 levels by 2025 and to 83 percent by 2050.
* Obama wants an accord in Copenhagen that covers all issues and has immediate operational effect.
* Finance - The United States says a dramatic increase is needed in funds to help developing nations.
* Demands - We cannot meet this challenge unless all the largest emitters of greenhouse gas pollution act together, Obama said.
3) EUROPEAN UNION (5.03 tonnes billion, 10.2 tonnes per capita)
* Emissions - EU leaders agreed in December 2008 to cut emissions by 20 percent below 1990 levels by 2020 and by 30 percent if other developed nations follow suit.
* Finance - EU leaders have agreed that developing nations will need about 100 billion euros ($147 billion) a year by 2020 to help them curb emissions and adapt to changes such as floods or heatwaves. As an advance payment, they suggest 5-7 billion euros a year between 2010 and 2012.
* Demands - The EU wants developing nations to curb the rise of their emissions by 15 to 30 percent below a trajectory of business as usual by 2020.
4) RUSSIA (1.7 billion tonnes, 11.9 tonnes per capita)
* Emissions - Cut greenhouse gases by 22-25 percent below 1990 levels by 2020. That means a rise from now -- emissions were 34 percent below 1990 levels in 2007.
5) INDIA (1.4 billion tonnes, 1.2 tonnes per capita)
* Emissions - India aims to cut its carbon intensity by between 20 and 25 percent by 2020, from 2005 levels, Environment Minister Jairam Ramesh said on December 3. He said India would not set a year when emissions will peak.
* Demands - Together with China, India wants rich nations to cut emissions by at least 40 percent by 2020 and opposes a goal of halving world emissions by 2050.
6) JAPAN (1.4 billion tonnes, 11.0 tonnes per capita)
* Emissions - Cut emissions by 25 percent below 1990 levels by 2020 if Copenhagen agrees an ambitious deal.
* Finance - Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama told the United Nations that Tokyo would also step up aid.
OTHER MAJOR EMITTERS:
CANADA (658 million tonnes, 19.8 tonnes per capita)
* Emissions - Environment Minister Jim Prentice has reiterated a target of cutting emissions by 20 percent below 2006 levels -- about 3 percent below 1990 -- saying Canada's plan mirrors Obama's goal.
SOUTH KOREA (664 million tonnes, 13.7 tonnes per capita)
* Emissions - Cut emissions by 30 percent below business as usual levels by 2020, which is equivalent to a 4 percent cut from 2005 levels.
BRAZIL (440 million tonnes, 2.2 tonnes per capita)
* Emissions - Will cut its emissions by between 36.1 percent and 38.9 percent from projected 2020 levels, representing a 20 percent cut below 2005 levels.
AUSTRALIA (381 million, 17.9 tonnes per capita)
Prime Minister Kevin Rudd has offered to cut emissions by between 3 and 23 percent below 1990 levels by 2020. But his plan for carbon trading has failed in the Senate. That gives him the option of calling an early election at any time, but he says he would prefer elections at the normal time of late 2010.
INDONESIA (380 million tonnes, 1.6 tonnes per capita)
* Emissions - Aims to cut emissions by 26 percent by 2020 below business as usual levels. Taking CO2 from deforestation into account, Indonesia is the world's third largest emitter of greenhouse gases.
Note: Greenhouse gas emissions are 2008 data from Germany's Energy industry institute IWR except for the EU, which are from a 2007 submission to United Nations.
Population data source: www.cia.gov
(Compiled by Michael Szabo, Alister Doyle and Gerard Wynn; Editing by David Stamp)