Fitch Ratings downgraded UBS AG
The ratings agency lowered UBS's long-term issuer default rating to A from A+.
Fitch is also reviewing ratings for Barclays Bank Plc
The cuts would in most cases be one notch and in some cases two notches, Fitch said. A lower bond rating can make debt more expensive to issue and lead to higher collateral requirements.
Earlier on Thursday, Fitch also lowered its ratings on Royal Bank of Scotland
Exposure to the European debt crisis and concern about the business model of pure-play investment banks were catalysts for most of the ratings actions, Joo-Yung Lee, a managing director in Fitch's financial institutions group, told Reuters.
Some of these banks have greater reliance on wholesale funding and greater reliance on what we view as volatile trading earnings, Lee said. That's particularly true of Goldman Sachs and Morgan Stanley in the U.S. They are less diverse than their global universal bank peers.
In the case of Bank of America, its exposure to mortgage-related litigation was a driver for Fitch's review. Competitors like Wells Fargo & Co
Fitch does not have a specific deadline to finish its review, but Lee said it hopes to resolve the matter quickly to reduce market uncertainty.
(Additional reporting by Herb Lash in New York; Editing by Gary Hill)