Major developing nations have announced steps over the past year to curb their growing greenhouse emissions as the world tries to negotiate a broader, and tougher, U.N. pact to slow the pace of climate change.
Rich nations have demanded China, India, Brazil and others to set binding emissions reduction targets to help seal a global climate deal in December, but poorer nations instead say they will take steps according to their abilities.
Following are actions or pledges by leading developing nations.
-- Government aims to cut energy consumption per unit of GDP by about 20 percent by 2010 compared with 2005 levels, which it says will save more than 1.5 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) from being emitted.
-- Goal for renewable energy to account for 15 percent of total energy consumption by 2020. Wind power generation is forecast to rise to 100 gigawatts by 2020 and the official forecast is 1.8 gigawatts for solar, though this may be conservative.
-- Fuel economy standards among toughest in the world.
-- Top climate diplomat said last month he wants to see emissions peak as soon as possible and major Chinese study released in August called for the government to set firm targets to limit greenhouse gas emissions so that they peak around 2030.
-- Government has pledged to ramp up investment in renewables and has set a solar power target of 20 gigawatts by 2020, up from a fraction of that now.
-- Aims for energy efficiency targets for more than 700 industrial operations as a step toward a national trading system centered on energy efficiency certificates.
-- Enforce energy efficiency for appliances, lighting, power distribution transformers.
-- Mandatory fuel efficiency standards for the transport sector by 2011.
-- Plans to put a detailed offer to cut growth of its greenhouse gas emissions at climate talks in Copenhagen in December.
-- President Felipe Calderon said in June Mexico would voluntarily cut 50 million tonnes of verifiable annual emissions by the end of his term in 2012 by bolstering efficiency in the state-run electricity and oil industries and improving rural land use. But CO2 emissions from the oil industry soared in 2008.
-- Agreed with the United States and Canada to build infrastructure to cooperate on CO2 emissions trading.
-- To announce targets to substantially curb carbon emissions. Announcement to come before the Copenhagen meeting.
-- Last year presented a plan to slash Amazon deforestation in half over 10 years and thereby avoid the release of 4.8 billion tonnes of CO2.
-- Will announce on September 17 new restrictions on sugar cane planting and ban new cane mills in the Amazon rain forest and the Pantanal wetland area in the country's west.
-- Unveiled plan in August to opt for a voluntary 2020 reduction target. To decide on three options with a minus-four percent target by 2020 from 2005 levels being the most ambitious.
-- Also plans to trial emissions trading and tax incentives to achieve the 2020 goal, boost use of hybrid cars and renewable energy and increase nuclear power output as part of steps to spark a green revolution of the economy.
-- Government-back National Climate Change Council in August set out roadmap for government to adopt measures in forestry, energy, transport and industry to slash greenhouse gas emissions by 2030.
-- Created government-backed clean technology fund to ramp up renewable energy investment.
-- Government is a leading supporter of U.N.-backed forest preservation scheme called REDD that aims to reward developing nations with valuable carbon credits for saving forests.
-- Government has crash program to add 10,000 megawatts of power through coal and renewable energy such as geothermal power.
(Writing by David Fogarty; Editing by Alex Richardson)