The resolution on the country formerly known as Burma, voted through by 86-23 with 39 abstentions, strongly condemns the ongoing systematic violations of human rights and fundamental freedoms of the people of Myanmar.
It also called on Myanmar's military rulers to immediately release opposition leader and Nobel peace prize laureate Aung San Suu Kyi from house arrest, as well as freeing more than 2,000 other prisoners of conscience.
In November, Myanmar's U.N. envoy, Than Swe, rejected the non-binding resolution, then in draft form, calling it glaringly deficient and little more than another means to maintain pressure on Myanmar in tandem with sanctions.
Swe could not be reached for comment on Thursday's vote.
Assembly condemnations of the human rights situation in North Korea, Myanmar and Iran have become an annual ritual in recent years.
This year's vote came after U.N. special rights investigator on Myanmar Tomas Ojea Quintana told the General Assembly in October that the situation of human rights in Myanmar remains alarming.
Envoys from nations that rights groups have also accused of having poor human rights records -- including China, Russia, Libya, Sudan, Syria, Egypt and Zimbabwe -- say they generally vote against such resolutions because they oppose singling out specific countries.
(Reporting by Basil Katz; Editing by Sandra Maler)