Are hands-free cell phones any less risky than hand-held cell phones behind the wheel? No, says Governors Highway Safety Association’s comprehensive study on distracted driving.

The study also found that there is no evidence that cell phone or texting bans have reduced crashes either.

As of now nine states have regulated hand-held cell phone use bans while driving and 34 states have imposed bans on texting for drivers on the road. The Governors Highway Safety Association recommends that 41 states which do not ban talking on a cell phone defer on enacting new legislation. Nevertheless, the group does not recommend that restrictions on cell phone use or texting be repealed in any of the states where they currently apply.

As cell phones are not the only culprit for car crashes and drivers are often distracted by a number of other factors such as eating and physical conditions, the findings make a number of useful recommendations.

The group suggests a complete ban on cell phone use including hands-free for novice drivers with potential high-risk, as well as texting bans for all drivers. It also proposes that distracted driving accidents may be reduced if greater use of highway engineering solutions such as rumble strips and automotive technological innovations are applied on the road.