We did not get an agreement on 50 percent reductions in global emissions by 2050 or on 80 percent reductions by developed countries, Miliband wrote to The Guardian.
Both were vetoed by China, despite the support of a coalition of developed and the vast majority of developing countries, he said.
Prime Minister Gordon Brown also accused on Monday a handful of countries of holding the UN climate summit to ransom as bitter recriminations swirled over the outcome of the negotiations.
Never again should we face the deadlock that threatened to pull down those talks. Never again should we let a global deal to move towards a greener future be held to ransom by only a handful of countries, he said.
China's premier Wen Jiabao rejected any suggestion it had played a negative role and said China had expressed its fullest sincerity and made its utmost effort.
This is the result of the efforts from all sides and has wide approval, Wen said.
The Copenhagen Accord promised 100 billion dollars for poor nations to fight against global warming, but has not given a fixed payout plan.