For achievements in science, technology and innovation, 12 people were awarded the National Medal of Science and the National Medal of Technology and Innovation award. The winners (as listed in President Barack Obama's speech) are:
1. Jacqueline Barton (Science - California Institute of Technology) - For discovery of a new property of the DNA helix long-range electron transfer and for showing that electron transfer depends upon stacking of the base pairs and DNA dynamics. Her experiments reveal how DNA repair proteins locate DNA lesions and demonstrate a biological role for DNA-mediated charge transfer.
2. Ralph Brinster (Science - University of Pennsylvania) - For his fundamental contributions to the development and experimental potential of transgenic mice. His research has provided experimental foundations and inspiration for broad progress in germ line genetic modification in a range of species, which has generated a revolution in biology, medicine and agriculture.
3. Shu Chien (Science - University of California, San Diego) - For pioneering work in cardiovascular physiology and bioengineering, which has had a tremendous impact in the fields of microcirculation, blood rheology and mechanotransduction in human health and disease.
4. Rudolf Jaenisch (Science - Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research and Massachusetts Institute of Technology) - For improving our understanding of the epigenetic regulation of gene expression - the biological mechanisms that affect how genetic information is variably expressed. His work has led to major advances in our understanding of mammalian cloning and embryonic stem cells.
5. Peter Stang (Science - University of Utah) - For his creative contributions to the development of organic super-molecular chemistry and for his outstanding and unique record of public service.
6. Richard Tapia (Science - Rice University) - For his pioneering and fundamental contributions in optimization theory and numerical analysis and for his dedication and sustained efforts in fostering diversity and excellence in mathematics and science education.
7. Srinivasa S.R. Varadhan (Science - New York University) - For his work in probability theory, especially his work on large deviations from expected random behavior which has revolutionized this field of study during the second half of the 20th century and become a cornerstone of both pure and applied probability. The mathematical insights he developed have been applied in diverse fields, including quantum field theory, population dynamics, finance, econometrics and traffic engineering.
8. Rakesh Agrawal (Technology and Innovation - Purdue University) - For an extraordinary record of innovations in improving the energy efficiency and reducing the cost of gas liquefaction and separation. These innovations have had significant and positive impacts on electronic device manufacturing, liquefied gas production and the supply of industrial gases for diverse industries.
9. B. Jayant Baliga (Technology and Innovation - North Carolina State University) - For the development and commercialization of the insulated gate bipolar transistor and other power semiconductor devices that are extensively used in transportation, lighting, medicine, defense and renewable energy generation systems.
10. C. Donald Bateman (Technology and Innovation - Honeywell) - For developing and championing critical flight-safety sensors now used by aircraft worldwide, including ground-proximity warning systems and wind-shear detection systems.
11. Yvonne Brill (Technology and Innovation - RCA Astro Electronics) - For innovation in rocket propulsion systems and geosynchronous and low Earth orbit communication satellites, which greatly improved the effectiveness of space propulsion systems.
12. Michael Tompsett (Technology and Innovation - TheraManager) - For pioneering work in materials and electronic technologies including the design and development of the first charge-coupled device imagers.