It was small step for man and a giant leap for mankind, but did astronaut Neil Armstrong really land on the moon? Despite the first moon landing being broadcast when Apollo 11 touched down July 20, 1969, there are scores of conspiracy theories that claim the U.S. government faked to landing to get ahead in the space wars against Russia. None of them have been confirmed by NASA, but the hoax accusations are one of the most popular rumors. Of course, there are also rumors Tupac is still alive.

1. The American flag was moving when Buzz Aldrin planted it onto the moon’s surface. While this doesn’t seem like anything strange, it is for the moon. The flag’s movement shows the presence of wind, but that would be impossible since being on the moon is like being in a vacuum. NASA rebutted the conspiracy theory by saying the reason why the flag moved was because of Aldrin twisting it into the moon’s soil.

2. There isn’t an impact crater where Apollo 11 landed. This conspiracy theory claims there should be a spot that marks where NASA landed on the moon. But there isn’t any crater visible in any of the footage. It looks like the module was placed there. NASA refuted the assertion by saying since there is less thrust on the moon. They used an airplane as an example, saying the aircraft doesn’t leave a crater when it lands on a concrete airstrip.

3. There are too many light sources. The only source of light on the moon is the sun. So all the shadows should parallel each other. In the videos and photographs from the moon landing, shadows fall in different places. NASA said the uneven landscape was to blame for the odd lighting.

4. The Van Allen radiation belt should have cooked the astronauts. In order to get to the moon, the astronauts had to fly through a band of radiation. The space craft had aluminum on the exterior to protect its passengers, but conspiracy theorists don’t believe it was enough to safely protect the astronauts for the 90 minutes it takes to navigate.

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