More than one million refugees have fled Somalia, according to the United Nations. While the world's deadliest famine has officially ended, remaining food shortages coupled with insecurity and fighting between African Union forces and militant group al-Shabab have wreaked havoc on the nation and its people.

Most Somali refugees have crossed into other East African countries such as neighboring Ethiopia and Kenya, which is now home to Dadaab, the world's largest refugee camp. There are also some 1.3 million internally displaced people within Somalia, who have fled their homes but not the country. Only the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have created as many refugees as the failed African state.

The crisis in Somalia started with the toppling of the Said Baar government in 1991. Since then, Somalia has failed to form a coherent government, and has been unable to alleviate the effects of famine and drought, nor combat the rise of Islamic militants.