a database with single or multiple files shared between different computers in the same or separate networks.
How Distributed Database Works
In a distributed database, the data systems are held in different physical locations but can be accessed by all computers on a system. Processing is also shared among the many nodes—a database containing information and agendas for different resources and users—of the database. To integrate and manage data in a distributed database, you can use distributed database management systems.
The distributed database management system (DDBMS) periodically synchronizes data. This synchronization ensures that any deleted or updated data in one computer or source will be displayed automatically in the other data locations. A distributed database is essential when it comes to horizontal scaling (adding more machines to a pool of resources). Distributed databases are designed to meet workload requirements without necessarily scaling a single machine vertically (adding power to an existing machine) or making database application changes.
There are many different features to a distributed database:
- Network linking: A network links databases so they can communicate.
- Location-independent: A distributed database management system (DDBMS) independently manages the data stored physically in multiple sites.
- Distributed query processing: a query—or request to read large data sets—enters at a client level and is processed and optimized on the global level. The system returns the large dataset transformed, and the system saves processing energy and time.
- Seamless integration: Databases are a representation of one logical database. The databases are interconnected.
- Transaction transparency: In distributed databases, there is transaction processing. The program includes a collection of single or multiple database operations.
- Distributed transaction management: Uses distributed concurrency and commit protocols. Also, in case of numerous transaction failures, the database provides methods of distributed recovery.
Distributed Database Example
Jane is an employee at the bank, and she stores all her data on one computer. Therefore, she only relies on a single computer to keep her data and make transactions. If her only computer breaks down and fails to work at any point, she has no other way of accessing the data she needs. To avoid this, Jane can store her information in multiple data stores—a distributed database.
Types of Distributed Data
Oracle Database is a data management system and the first of its kind. The company essentially revolutionized distributed data practices. With Oracle, there are two types of distributed databases.
- Heterogeneous Database: at least one database within a system is a non-Oracle system.
- Homogeneous Database: one or more Oracle databases that live on one machine.
Significance of Distributed Data
Modular development is possible with distributed data. This means that local data and new computers can be added to the distributed data system without interruption, leading to their expansion. Distributed data also lowers communication costs and improves throughput, fault tolerance, scalability, latency, and availability.
The system will come to a halt in centralized databases if even one error or failure hits the database. On the other hand, if there is a failure of any component in distributed databases, the system still functions but at a reduced performance rate.