UPDATE: 12:40 p.m. EST -- France pledged Tuesday to give 2 billion euros to African countries over the next four years to invest in renewable energy sources that could eventually replace the carbon-emitting fossil fuels on which the nations in the continent heavily rely.

"France will devote 6 billion euros between 2016 and 2020 for electricity provision on the continent,” French President François Hollande said at a meeting with African leaders, Agence France-Presse reported. “Two billion euros will be spent on renewable energy.”

Hollande said that the world owes African nations an ecological debt because, while they are not the biggest emitters in the world, they are being affected by climate change.

Also Tuesday, protesters left 10,000 shoes in the French capital. Large demonstrations have been temporarily outlawed in the country following the Nov. 13 terrorist attacks.

UPDATE: 10:10 a.m. EST -- While mass gatherings are technically banned right now in Paris due to an extended state of emergency in France following the terrorist attacks Nov. 13, protesters are finding creative ways of displaying their dissatisfaction with global emitters, NPR reports. So-called “subvertisements” have been spotted around the city, providing artistic critiques of major international businesses that are largely responsible for the carbon emissions changing the world’s climates.

One notable example is a poster that mocks Volkswagen, which came under fire this year after it was discovered that the company had tinkered with its vehicles' emissions readings when the cars were being tested. The ad, which looks like a simple bus stop advertisement, reads: “We’re sorry that we got caught. Now that we’ve been caught, we’re trying to make you think we care about the environment. But we’re not the only ones.”


UPDATE: 9:50 a.m. EST -- Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi unveiled an international solar power alliance Tuesday that includes over 120 countries, according to the Guardian. Modi was accompanied by French President François Hollande in Paris for the United Nations climate change talks.

Modi announced the alliance during a press conference and said that fossil fuels put the planet in danger and that the future for the developing world will rely on bold ideas, not traditional energy sources.

“Solar technology is evolving, costs are coming down, and grid connectivity is improving,” he said. “The dream of universal access to clean energy is becoming more real. This will be the foundation of the new economy of the new century.”

Solar power, Modi said, will be able to power homes and villages that have never had power before.

GettyImages-499411960 U.S. President Barack Obama makes a speech during a press conference Dec. 1, 2015, in Paris. Photo: Pascal Le Segretain/Getty Images

Original Story -- U.S. President Barack Obama expressed optimism for the climate talks during a speech in Paris Tuesday, saying he expected the gathered countries would be able to get big things done over the next few weeks. Obama said that in spite of opposition back home from Republicans looking to derail his policies, the international community has rallied around the importance of climate change mitigation even if the path forward will not be easy.

“All of this will be hard -- getting 200 nations to agree on anything is hard,” he said. “This is an economic and security priority that we have to tackle now. And great nations can handle a lot at once. America is already leading on many issues, and climate is no different.”

Obama said the United States would help other countries meet their energy goals. "We still need a Paris agreement," Obama said. "So my main focus is making sure that the United States is a leader in bringing a successful agreement home."