For the first time, the U.S. topped the list of countries Russians view as most hostile, according to a poll conducted by the Levada Center, Russia’s most respected independent pollster. The proportion of Russians who view the U.S. as hostile rose to 38 percent in 2013 from 23 percent in 2005.

For years, Russians saw Georgia as a far more hostile nation than the U.S., but that sentiment has been on the decline since 2009. Animosity toward Georgia fell to 33 percent in 2013 from 62 percent in 2007.

Despite seeing the U.S. as an unfriendly nation, an overwhelming majority of Russians -- 71 percent -- believe Russia should strengthen its relations with the West. A smaller majority -- 52 percent -- think Russia should strengthen its relations with the Muslim world.

Here are the results of the poll:

Belarus tops the list of allies, and the U.S. tops the list of hostile countries, according to a recent poll of Russian residents. International Business Times/Lisa Mahapatra