In a nationwide clean energy study that ranked every U.S. state in terms of their clean-energy production and policies, California took the top spot for the fifth year in a row, followed by Massachusetts, Oregon, Colorado and New York.

Vermont and Connecticut edged into the top 10 states on the list this year, knocking out Hawaii and Minnesota, according to the report, which is produced annually by Clean Edge Inc., a research firm that tracks the clean-tech sector in the U.S. West Virginia and Mississippi ranked last this year, as they did last year.

Clean Edge's list took into account non-fossil fuel energy policies, investment and innovation, giving California a score of 93.7 and Massachusetts 79.4.

Oregon, Colorado and New York, which rounded out the list's top 5 states, all received scores in the high 60s. 

“With enviable solar, wind and geothermal resources, a green-minded populace, and generally effective policy levers at every level of government, California places No. 1 in all three subcategories of clean technology deployment: electricity, transportation, and energy efficiency/green buildings,” the report said.

solar capacity Only Hawaii has installed more photovoltaic solar capacity than California. Photo: Clean Edge

In its metro index, the report said San Francisco and San Jose, both in California, remained in first and second place, respectively, as they did on the 2012 list, which was released last year. San Diego ranked third, giving California five of the top seven metro areas for clean energy. 

electriccars Californians drive the most fully-electric vehicles. Photo: Clean Edge

The report said 11 states generated more than 10 percent of their electricity from clean sources excluding hydropower last year, and that Iowa and South Dakota generated more than one-quarter of their electricity from clean sources. The study noted that eight states use smart-meters, which record power consumption at least hourly and report it to utilities, for at least 50 percent of their markets, and sales of all-electric vehicles like the Chevy Volt and Nissan LEAF more than tripled in 2013 to nearly 50,000.

capitaloverview Massachusetts spends the most per person on clean energy generation and research. Photo: Clean Edge

Massachusetts beat California's ranking  in terms of clean energy policy and capital investment in clean energy ventures, but California beat Massachusetts's ranking for green buildings, transportation, carbon management and clean-tech workforce and innovation. 

capitalinvestment California trumps every state in its spending on alternative energy generation and research. Photo: Clean Edge